Parametric aggregate functions
Some aggregate functions can accept not only argument columns (used for compression), but a set of parameters – constants for initialization. The syntax is two pairs of brackets instead of one. The first is for parameters, and the second is for arguments.
sequenceMatch(pattern)(time, cond1, cond2, ...)
Pattern matching for event chains.
pattern is a string containing a pattern to match. The pattern is similar to a regular expression.
time is the time of the event with the DateTime type.
cond2 ... is from one to 32 arguments of type UInt8 that indicate whether a certain condition was met for the event.
The function collects a sequence of events in RAM. Then it checks whether this sequence matches the pattern. It returns UInt8: 0 if the pattern isn't matched, or 1 if it matches.
sequenceMatch ('(?1).*(?2)')(EventTime, URL LIKE '%company%', URL LIKE '%cart%')
- whether there was a chain of events in which a pageview with 'company' in the address occurred earlier than a pageview with 'cart' in the address.
This is a singular example. You could write it using other aggregate functions:
minIf(EventTime, URL LIKE '%company%') < maxIf(EventTime, URL LIKE '%cart%').
However, there is no such solution for more complex situations.
(?1) refers to the condition (any number can be used in place of 1).
.* is any number of any events.
(?t>=1800) is a time condition.
Any quantity of any type of events is allowed over the specified time.
>=, the following operators can be used:
Any number may be specified in place of 1800.
Events that occur during the same second can be put in the chain in any order. This may affect the result of the function.
sequenceCount(pattern)(time, cond1, cond2, ...)
Works the same way as the sequenceMatch function, but instead of returning whether there is an event chain, it returns UInt64 with the number of event chains found. Chains are searched for without overlapping. In other words, the next chain can start only after the end of the previous one.
windowFunnel(window)(timestamp, cond1, cond2, cond3, ...)
Window funnel matching for event chains, calculates the max event level in a sliding window.
window is the timestamp window value, such as 3600.
timestamp is the time of the event with the DateTime type or UInt32 type.
cond2 ... is from one to 32 arguments of type UInt8 that indicate whether a certain condition was met for the event
Consider you are doing a website analytics, intend to find out the user counts clicked login button (event = 1001), then the user counts followed by searched the phones( event = 1003 and product = 'phone'), then the user counts followed by made an order (event = 1009). And all event chains must be in a 3600 seconds sliding window.
This could be easily calculate by
SELECT level, count() AS c FROM ( SELECT user_id, windowFunnel(3600)(timestamp, event_id = 1001, event_id = 1003 AND product = 'phone', event_id = 1009) AS level FROM trend_event WHERE (event_date >= '2017-01-01') AND (event_date <= '2017-01-31') GROUP BY user_id ) GROUP BY level ORDER BY level
Simply, the level value could only be 0, 1, 2, 3, it means the maxium event action stage that one user could reach.
Calculates the number of different argument values if it is less than or equal to N. If the number of different argument values is greater than N, it returns N + 1.
Recommended for use with small Ns, up to 10. The maximum value of N is 100.
For the state of an aggregate function, it uses the amount of memory equal to 1 + N * the size of one value of bytes. For strings, it stores a non-cryptographic hash of 8 bytes. That is, the calculation is approximated for strings.
The function also works for several arguments.
It works as fast as possible, except for cases when a large N value is used and the number of unique values is slightly less than N.
Problem: Generate a report that shows only keywords that produced at least 5 unique users. Solution: Write in the GROUP BY query SearchPhrase HAVING uniqUpTo(4)(UserID) >= 5