User settings

The users section of the user.xml configuration file contains settings for users.

Structure of the users section:

    <!-- If user name was not specified, 'default' user is used. -->
        <!-- Or -->

        <networks incl="networks" replace="replace">



    <!-- Other users settings -->


Password could be specified in plaintext or in SHA256 (hex format).

  • To specify password in plaintext (not recommended), place it in a password element.

    For example, <password>qwerty</password>. Password can be empty.

  • To specify SHA256 hash of a password, place it in a password_sha256_hex element.

    For example, <password_sha256_hex>65e84be33532fb784c48129675f9eff3a682b27168c0ea744b2cf58ee02337c5</password_sha256_hex>.

    Example of how to generate password from shell:

    PASSWORD=$(base64 < /dev/urandom | head -c8); echo "$PASSWORD"; echo -n "$PASSWORD" | sha256sum | tr -d '-'

    The first line of the result is the password. The second line is the corresponding SHA256 hash.


List of networks which the user can connect to ClickHouse server from.

Each element of list has one of the following forms:

  • <ip> — IP-address or a network mask.

    Examples:,,, 2a02:6b8::3, 2a02:6b8::3/64, 2a02:6b8::3/ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff::.

  • <host> — Hostname.


    To check access, DNS query is performed, and all returned IP-addresses are compared to peer address.

  • <host_regexp> — Regular expression for hostnames.

    Example, ^server\d\d-\d\d-\d\.yandex\.ru$

    To check access, DNS PTR query is performed for peer address and then regexp is applied. Then, for result of PTR query, another DNS query is performed and all received addresses compared to peer address. Strongly recommended that regexp is ends with $

All results of DNS requests are cached till server restart.


To open access for user from any network, specify:



It's insecure to open access from any network, unless you have a firewall properly configured or server is not directly connected to Internet.

To open access only from localhost, specify:



You can assign a settings profile for the user. Settings profiles are configured in a separate section of the users.xml file. For more information see the Profiles of Settings.


Quotas allow you to limit resource usage over a period of time, or track the use of resources. Quotas are configured in the quotas section of the users.xml configuration file.

You can assign a quotas set for the user. For the detailed description of quotas configuration see the Quotas section.


In this section you can you can limit rows that are returned by ClickHouse for SELECT queries of current user, thus implementing basic row level security.


The following configuration sets that the user user1 can see only the rows of table1 as a result of SELECT query where the value of field id equals to 1000.

                <filter>id = 1000</filter>

The filter can be any expression resulting with the UInt8-typed value. It usually contains comparisons and logical operators. Rows from database_name.table1 where filter results to 0 are not returned for this user. The filtering is incompatible with PREWHERE operations and disables WHERE→PREWHERE optimization.